Note how the traditions of the peace and truce of God - aimed at bringing about peace in Christendom - ties in directly with the call for a Crusade. Does this amount to the export of violence?
The Byzantine Emperor had requested western christians, prelates and nobles to come to his aid and to the aid of eastern christians against the Seljuk Turks. At the Council of Clermont inUrban called for the raising of an army for that purpose.
No transcript of his speech survives, if indeed he even spoke from a written text. There are several accounts of the speech, some by authors who may have been present, others by persons who were not.
None of the accounts were produced contemporaneously with the speech. The five leading accounts vary greatly. The First Crusade did result in the capture of the Levant and the occupation of Jerusalem.
It is entirely possible that Urban always intended that the army would proceed to Jerusalem, but there is no credible evidence that such is the case. The primary purpose of the expedition was to check the Turkish expansion into the eastern empire and ostensibly to protect the christians there.
Some, but not all, of the accounts of the Clermont speech written after the capture Jerusalem attribute the taking of the city as a goal mentioned at the outset by Urban. Urban himself, in letters and sermons of about the same time, does not mention Jerusalem until it became apparent to him that "his" armies intended to move against the region.
Urban called for the raising of an army and mentions "war" and "this undertaking". Neither he nor those who pretend to quote him use the term "crusade" and certainly none of them mention a "Crusade" the capital 'C' is of critical import in the context of your question.
Even had Urban mentioned a crusade, he never would have called it the "first" crusade. To do so would necessarily contemplate failure and the need for follow up wars or 'crusades'. Since Urban claimed his war was a holy endeavor and the "will of God", it is unlikely he would have presumed failure in his call for arms by implying that the war he intended to wage was but the preliminary skirmish in a chain of ongoing conflicts.
Sloganeering and propaganda have always been, and remain, critical to the successful waging of war. The soon to be dead need some reason or justification to lay down their lives. Some bright propagandist, who exactly did it is unknown and he shall remain anonymous for all time, hit on the idea of calling the war a 'holy crusade' and it stuck.
Since Urban had essentially promised the forgiveness of the sins all of those who answered his call to kill for Christ, it wasn't much of a stretch to call Urban's jihad a holy war or a crusade for God.
Those who went began using the term and calling themselves 'crusaders'. Perhaps they believed there was more glory in the term than in calling themselves mere soldiers, or perhaps they did so to assuage their consciences for their participation in the slaughter especially after they turned on the very eastern christians they were ostensibly there to help.
For whatever reason they used it, the term stuck and Urban's war has become the "First Crusade" in subsequent history, thereby making it easier to name the next twenty-two or more European Holy Wars mostly, but not all, in the east and Middle Easteven though only nine of them are deemed significant enough to be numbered.
Using the common terminology, and realizing the emotional and superstitious appeal of calling for war in the name God, he called for an army to mount a "Second Crusade" This was the first papal bull to call for or mention a "crusade".
It is entirely probable that Pope Paschal II referred to a "crusade" when he raised his armies in to reinforce the scant western christians who had made it to, or remained in, the Levant during and following Urban's campaign. Since he called specifically upon the troops who had been repelled or who had turned back during Urban's campaign, Paschal's war is known today as the "Crusade of Faint-Hearted".
Urban II (): Speech at Council of Clermont, , Five versions of the Speech. In or , Alexios I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor, sent to the pope, Urban II, and asked for aid. WHY WORRY, IT'S ONLY A PARABLE? A parable is just a story used to illustrate a lesson. It conveys a meaning by using an analogy. Jesus used a parable to order his minions to murder non-believers. Download the printable pdf by clicking here>> The First Crusade. In autumn of , Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade by calling upon his fellow Christians to reclaim the Holy City of Jerusalem, and to seek revenge on the followers of Islam, whom he accused of committing horrendous crimes against Christendom (Asbridge 16).
No historical record attributes that sobriquet to Paschal, just as there is no evidence whatsoever that Urban called his undertaking a 'crusade', let alone the "First Crusade". As to why Urban went to war at all, there were several reasons.
The primary one he mentioned was because Alexius I had asked for help in his war with the invading Seljuks. Urban's power, influence and wealth and the supremacy of the western church could only be enhanced if Urban was successful.
The capture of lands from the Muslims and the conversions of the inhabitants, whether forced or voluntary, was another way to increase the holdings, power and wealth of the church.Crusades Overview.
First Crusade. Third Crusade. Venetians Take Constantinople. Saladin. Saladin Takes Jerusalem: The Crusades.
In an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II met at Clermont, France. May 31, · On November 27, , Pope Urban II makes perhaps the most influential speech of the Middle Ages, giving rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to . The First Crusade (–) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks.
Outremer, "across the sea," means the states created and maintained by Crusaders and their descendants in the Middle East between , during the First Crusade, and , when Cyprus passed to Venice.
Pope Urban's war cry caught fire, mobilising clerics to drum up support throughout Europe for the crusade against the Muslims.
All told, between 60, and , people responded to Pope Urban's call to march on Jerusalem. The First Crusade: The Call from the East [Peter Frankopan] on feelthefish.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
According to tradition, the First Crusade began at the instigation of Pope Urban II and culminated in July