It involved several regions and continents: The transatlantic slave trade is often regarded as the first system of globalization. According to French historian Jean-Michel Deveau the slave trade and consequently slavery, which lasted from the 16th to the 19th century, constitute one of "the greatest tragedies in the history of humanity in terms of scale and duration". The transatlantic slave trade was the biggest deportation in history and a determining factor in the world economy of the 18th century.
Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization. After independence inthe name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue.
In95 percent of the population was of African descent, and the remaining 5 percent mulatto and white. Some wealthy citizens think of themselves as French, but most residents identify themselves as Haitian and there is a strong sense of nationalism.
Haiti covers 10, square miles 27, square kilometers. It is located in the subtropics on the western third of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Caribbean, which it shares with the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic.
The neighboring islands include Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Three-quarters of the terrain is mountainous; the highest peak is the Morne de Selle.
The climate is mild, varying with altitude. The mountains are calcareous rather than volcanic and give way to widely varying microclimatic and soil conditions. A tectonic fault line runs through the country, causing occasional and sometimes devastating earthquakes. The island is also located within the Caribbean hurricane belt.
The population has grown steadily fromat independence in to the estimate of 6. Haiti is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.
Until the s, over 80 percent of the population resided in rural areas, and today, over 60 percent continue to live in provincial villages, hamlets, and homesteads scattered across the rural landscape.
The capital city is Port-au-Prince, which is five times larger than the next biggest city, Cape Haitian. Over one million native-born Haitians live overseas; an additional fifty thousand leave the country every year, predominantly for the United States but also to Canada and France.
Approximately 80 percent of permanent migrants come from the educated middle and upper classes, but very large numbers of lower-class Haitians temporarily migrate to the Dominican Republic and Nassau Bahamas to work at low-income jobs in the informal economy.
An unknown number of lower-income migrants remain abroad. For most of the nation's history the official language has been French. However, the language spoken by the vast majority of the people is kreyol, whose pronunciation and vocabulary are derived largely from French but whose syntax is similar to that of other creoles.
With the adoption of a new constitution inkreyol was given official status as the primary official language. French was relegated to the status of a secondary official language but continues to prevail among the elite and in government, functioning as marker of social class and a barrier to the less educated and the poor.
An estimated 5—10 percent of the population speaks fluent French, but in recent decades massive emigration to the United States and the availability of cable television from the United States have helped English replace French as the second language in many sectors of the population.
Residents attach tremendous importance to the expulsion of the French inan event that made Haiti the first independently black-ruled nation in the world, and only the second country in the Western Hemisphere to achieve independence from imperial Europe. The most noted national symbols are the flag, Henri Christophe's citadel and the statue of the "unknown maroon" Maroon inconnua bare-chested revolutionary Haiti trumpeting a conch shell in a call to arms.
The presidential palace is also an important national symbol. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of a Nation.
Hispaniola was discovered by Christopher Columbus in and was the first island in the New World settled by the Spanish. Bythe indigenous culture of the Taino Indians had vanished from the island, and Hispaniola became a neglected backwater of the Spanish Empire. In the mids, the western third of the island was populated by fortune seekers, castaways, and wayward colonists, predominantly French, who became pirates and buccaneers, hunting wild cattle and pigs unleashed by the earliest European visitors and selling the smoked meat to passing ships.
In the mids, the French used the buccaneers as mercenaries freebooters in an unofficial war against the Spanish.
This area became the French colony of Saint Domingue.
Bythe colony had become the "jewel of the Antilles," the richest colony in the world. Inrevolution in France sparked dissension in the colony, which had a population of half a million slaves half of all the slaves in the Caribbean ; twenty-eight thousand mulattoes and free blacks, many of whom were wealthy landowners; and thirty-six thousand white planters, artisans, slave drivers, and small landholders.Slave culture in colonial North America was largely a combination of tribal African culture, Christian worship, and resistance.
In many respects, American slave culture was a culture of survival and defiance against the American slave system. SAGA: The word comes from the Old Norse term for a "saw" or a "saying."Sagas are Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable .
Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and the University of North Carolina Press) [Philip D. Morgan] on feelthefish.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. On the eve of the American Revolution, nearly three-quarters of all African Americans in mainland British America lived .
The Slave Leia costume refers to the bikini-style outfit worn by Princess Leia Organa when she was captured by Jabba the Hutt in Return of the Jedi. The costume was worn by actress Carrie Fisher and stuntwoman Tracy Eddon and was created by costume designers Aggie Guerard Rodgers and Nilo.
We're hoping to rely on our loyal readers rather than erratic ads. To support Open Culture's continued operation, please consider making a donation. The slave population in Brazil and the West Indies had a lower proportion of female slaves, a much lower birth rate, and a higher proportion of recent arrivals from Africa.
In striking contrast, southern slaves had an equal sex ratio, a high birthrate, and a predominantly American-born population.