Temperature is the most frequently measured environmental quantity, and temperature influences many biological, physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic systems. Some processes work well only within a limited field of temperatures. So, necessary care must be taken to monitor and protect the system. Temperature sensing serves to enhance circuit stability.
Rivalry In the traditional economic model, competition among rival firms drives profits to zero. But competition is not perfect and firms are not unsophisticated passive price takers. Rather, firms strive for a competitive advantage over their rivals. The intensity of rivalry among firms varies across industries, and strategic analysts are interested in these differences.
The Concentration Ratio CR is one such measure. A high concentration ratio indicates that a high concentration of market share is held by the largest firms - the industry is concentrated. With only a few firms holding a large market share, the competitive landscape is less competitive closer to a monopoly.
A low concentration ratio indicates that the industry is characterized by many rivals, none of which has a significant market share. These fragmented markets are said to be competitive. The concentration ratio is not the only available measure; the trend is to define industries in terms that convey more information than distribution of market share.
If rivalry among firms in an industry is low, the industry is considered to be disciplined. Explicit collusion generally is illegal and not an option; in low-rivalry industries competitive moves must be constrained informally.
However, a maverick firm seeking a competitive advantage can displace the otherwise disciplined market. When a rival acts in a way that elicits a counter-response by other firms, rivalry intensifies. In pursuing an advantage over its rivals, a firm can choose from several competitive moves: Changing prices - raising or lowering prices to gain a temporary advantage.
Improving product differentiation - improving features, implementing innovations in the manufacturing process and in the product itself.
Creatively using channels of distribution - using vertical integration or using a distribution channel that is novel to the industry. For example, with high-end jewelry stores reluctant to carry its watches, Timex moved into drugstores and other non-traditional outlets and cornered the low to mid-price watch market.
Sears set high quality standards and required suppliers to meet its demands for product specifications and price. The intensity of rivalry is influenced by the following industry characteristics: A larger number of firms increases rivalry because more firms must compete for the same customers and resources.
The rivalry intensifies if the firms have similar market share, leading to a struggle for market leadership. Slow market growth causes firms to fight for market share. In a growing market, firms are able to improve revenues simply because of the expanding market. High fixed costs result in an economy of scale effect that increases rivalry.
When total costs are mostly fixed costs, the firm must produce near capacity to attain the lowest unit costs. Since the firm must sell this large quantity of product, high levels of production lead to a fight for market share and results in increased rivalry.Transcript of Porter’s five forces analysis in automotive industry.
Internal and External Analysis on Automobile Industry design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi Porter’s five forces. Full transcript.
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Imagine for a moment, a fully loaded jet airliner flying from Los Angeles to New York. Porter’s five forces model Porter’s five forces model is an analysis tool that uses five forces to determine the profitability of an industry and shape a firm’s competitive strategy It is a framework that classifies and analyzes the most important forces affecting the intensity .
The intensity of Porter’s five competitive forces: threat of entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitution and rivalry among existing competitors determine the long-run profitability of the industry. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin