Metric Details Victor A. Vaccine-derived polioviruses VDPVsstrains that have diverged from the live vaccine virus during prolonged circulation, can emerge rarely in areas with inadequate OPV coverage and can cause outbreaks of paralysis. Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia make up much of the Horn of Africa. Performance indicators for acute flaccid paralysis AFP surveillance, an indicator of the sensitivity of surveillance to detect a case of polio, indicate some subnational gaps in these countries, including in areas of Somalia that are inaccessible for polio vaccination activities 4,5.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Refusal of oral polio vaccine OPV by heads of households is a significant challenge. Methods To evaluate reasons for refusals, we conducted a case control study among heads ofhouseholds accepting or refusing OPV vaccine.
Noncompliant households were defined as households refusing OPV vaccination in last three rounds of IPDs while compliant households were those accepting vaccination. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to the heads of households to obtain information on socio-demographics, media habits, and knowledge of IPD.
Conclusion We conclude that noncompliant heads of households compared to compliant heads of households had low level of education, lacked knowledge of immunization, and had negative attitude towards OPV.
They get information about OPV from town announcers and lacked access to functional radio and television.
We recommended training of town announcers in polio communication and use of key communication messages preceding every round of IPD. Immunization, OPV, Vaccine refusal, WPV, poliomyelitis, knowledge, attitude, noncompliance Introduction In Maythe world health assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year [ 1 ].
Though this target was missed,the number of countries with endemic wild poliovirus WPV dropped to three, namely Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in When the global effort to eradicate polio was launched in, children in countries were permanently paralyzed by poliovirus each year, despite the availability of a cheap and effective oral polio vaccine OPV [ 3 ].
These strategies included Supplemental Immunization Activities, achieving high level of routine immunization coverage, and house-to-housemop up campaigns carried out in areas where the virus is suspected to be circulating.
Nigeria, the only African country still endemic for WPV,has increasingly used supplemental immunization activities to break the transmission of WPV because of the low routine immunization coverage [ 5 ].
The immunization plus days IPD is a supplemental immunization strategy used for mass immunization with OPV throughhouse-to-house vaccination aimed at eligible children irrespective of their previous vaccination status [ 4 ]. Though IPD srecommenced inrefusal of vaccination by parents or guardians of children eligible for polio vaccination which is also referred to as noncompliance continued.
Refusal of vaccination for eligible children by parents or caregivers has been demonstrated elsewhere. In a United States study offactors associated with refusal of childhood vaccination, parents who refused believed the efficacy of vaccines were low and had concerns about vaccine safety [ 8 ].
Studies have indicated that misperceptions of mass campaigns among caregivers could lead to non-vaccination of their children [ 8 — 15 ]. Between the periods January throughSokoto state of Nigeria reported cases of polio [ 16 ]. Specifically, we wanted to determine the socio-demographic correlates, the knowledge, attitude, and sources of information of heads of households refusing OPV during IPD as compared with compliant households.
The study was conducted in Sokoto north and Sokotosouth local government areas of Sokoto state located in the Northwestern region of Nigeria in November Sokoto state shares an international boundary with Niger Republic to the north and two other Nigerian states Kebbi and Zamfara states to the south.
We conducted an unmatched case-control study in 2 local government areas in Sokoto state Sokoto North and Sokoto South. Participants refusing vaccination werethe heads of householdswhere the parent or guardian of an eligible child refused OPV in the last three consecutive rounds of IPD.
Participants for controls werethe nearest household to the right of the noncompliant household that allowed all its eligible children to be vaccinated in the past three rounds. Inclusion criteria were presence of heads of householdson the list of noncompliance for the last three rounds of IPD in andpresence of an eligible child years within the household.
Exclusion criteriawere refusal of consent, absence of head of household after three visits, and relocation of the household outside the study area. We used the formula below to calculate our sample size: The sampling frame for the study included names of heads of households that appeared on the list of noncompliance for the last three rounds of IPD inSokoto north and Sokoto south local government.Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease.
There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines. Therefore, the strategy to eradicate polio is based on preventing infection by immunizing every child to stop transmission and ultimately make the world polio free.
cVDPV Circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus DOPV Directly observed polio vaccination EOC Emergency Operations Centre ERC Expert Review Committee on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization IPDs Immunization Plus Days.
The polio vaccine should be given to pregnant/breastfeeding women who are at risk; the attack rate of polio is greater in pregnant versus non-pregnant women. All current polio vaccines are trivalent, designed to protect against all three serotypes of poliovirus. Nigeria's start-stop polio immunization campaign has allowed the country to go 20 months without a single case of paralytic polio.
Rotary International’s Polio-Plus Committee in . Polio can only be prevented by immunization.
There are two types of vaccine that can prevent polio: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Since , in the United States, only Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated, trade name, IPOL® has been available. Poliovirus: Polio Immunization Plus. Length: words. Poliovirus is from the subgroup enterovirus and the family Picornaviradae.
It is a virus that causes poliomyelitis, which is better known as polio. Poliovirus is usually contracted by the fecal-oral route, but sometimes infects by the oral-oral route.