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Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message The Juror 3 essay of a grand jury is to accuse persons who may be guilty of an offense, but the institution is also a shield against unfounded and oppressive prosecution.
It is a means for lay citizens, representative of the community, to participate in the administration of justice. It can also make presentments on crime and maladministration in its area. The traditional number of the grand jury is The mode of accusation is by a written statement in solemn form indictment describing the offense with proper accompaniments of time and circumstances, and certainty of act and person or by a mode less formal, which is usually the spontaneous act of the grand jury, called presentment.
The grand jury may accuse upon their own knowledge, but it is generally done upon the testimony of witnesses under oath and other evidence heard before them. The proceedings of grand jury are, in the first instance, at the instigation of the government or other prosecutor, and ex parte and in secret deliberation.
The accused has no knowledge nor right to interfere with their proceedings. If the indictment is not proven to the satisfaction of the grand jury, the word "ignoramus"  or "not a true bill" is written upon it by the grand jury, or by their foreman and then said to be ignored, and the accusation is dismissed as unfounded.
The potential defendant is said to have been "no-billed" by the grand jury. If the grand jury returns an indictment as a true bill "billa vera"the indictment is said to be founded and the party to stand indicted and required to be put on trial.
Itinerant justices on regular circuits were sent out once each year to enforce Juror 3 essay "King's Peace". To make this system of royal criminal justice more effective, Henry employed the method of inquest used by William the Conqueror in the Domesday Book. Thus originated the more recent grand jury that presents information for an indictment.
The document was primarily composed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton He and Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro developed schemas for division of the Bible into chapters and it is the system of Archbishop Langton which prevailed. Notable cases[ edit ] On 2 Julya popular statesman, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested on suspicion of high treason and committed to the Tower of London.
He immediately petitioned the Old Bailey on a writ of habeas corpusbut the Old Bailey said it did not have jurisdiction over prisoners in the Tower of London, so Cooper had to wait for the next session of the Court of King's Bench.
Cooper moved for a writ of habeas corpus on 24 Octoberand his case finally came before a grand jury on 24 November The government's case against Cooper was particularly weak — the government admitted that most of the witnesses brought against Cooper had already perjured themselves, and the documentary evidence was inconclusive; and the jury was handpicked by the Whig Sheriff of London.
For these reasons the government had little chance of securing a conviction, and on 13 February the case was dropped when the Grand Jury issued an ignoramus bill, rather than comply with the King's intent of a "True Bill", known as a Grand Jury Indictment.
The grand jury's theoretical function against abuse of executive power was seen during the Watergate crisis in America, in United States v.
Nixonthe U. Supreme Court ruled 8 to 0 on 23 July Justice William Rehnquist who had been appointed by Nixon recused himself from the case that executive privilege applied only to the co-equal branches, the legislative and judicial, not to grand jury subpoenas, thus implying a grand jury constituted protections equaled to a "fourth branch of government".
The second Watergate grand jury indicted seven lawyers in the White House, including former Attorney General John Mitchell and named President Nixon as a "secret, un-indicted, co-conspirator. Similarly, inPresident Clinton became the first sitting president required to testify before a grand jury as subject of an investigation by the Office of Independent Counsel.
The testimony came after a four-year investigation into Clinton and his wife Hillary's alleged involvement in several scandals including Whitewater and the Rose Law Firm. Revelations from the investigation sparked a battle in Congress over whether or not to impeach Clinton.
Grand jurors at the assizes or at the borough quarter sessions did not have property qualifications; but, at the county quarter sessions, they had the same property qualification as petty jurors.
However, at the assizes, the grand jury generally consisted of gentlemen of high standing in the county. After the court was opened by the crier making proclamation, the names of those summoned to the grand jury were called and they were sworn.
They numbered at least 14 and not more than The person presiding the judge at the assizes, the chairman at the county sessions, the recorder at the borough sessions gave the charge to the grand jury, i. The charge having been delivered, the grand jury withdrew to their own room, having received the bills of indictment.
The witnesses whose names were endorsed on each bill were sworn as they came to be examined, in the grand jury room, the oath being administered by the foreman, who wrote his initials against the name of the witness on the back of the bill.
Only the witnesses for the prosecution were examined, as the function of the grand jury was merely to inquire whether there was sufficient ground to put the accused on trial.
If the majority of them and at least 12 thought that the evidence so adduced made out a sufficient case, the words "a true bill" were endorsed on the back of the bill. If they were of the opposite opinion, the phrase "not a true bill", or the single Latin word ignoramus "we do not know" or "we are ignorant of "was endorsed instead and the bill was said to be "ignored" or thrown out.
They could find a true bill as to the charge in one count, and ignore that in another; or as to one defendant and not as to another; but they could not, like a petty jury, return a special or conditional finding, or select part of a count as true and reject the other part.
When some bills were "found", some of the jurors came out and handed the bills to the clerk of arraigns in assizes or clerk of the peacewho announced to the court the name of the prisoner, the charge, and the endorsements of the grand jury.Essay about Twelve Angry Men Juror 3 Words | 3 Pages.
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