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Tolstoy Farm Mohandas K. Gandhi attributes the success of the final phase of the satyagraha campaign in South Africa between and to the "spiritual purification and penance" afforded by the Tolstoy Farm.
The Tolstoy Farm was the second of its kind of experiments established by Gandhi. He devotes a considerable number of pages in Satyagraha in South Africa to the discussion of the day-to-day activities on the farm as the experiment appeared important to him, even though it had not enjoyed much "limelight".
It is located on the site of privately-owned Corobrik brick factory. The first, the Phoenix settlement in Natal, was inspired in by a single reading of John Ruskin's Unto This Last, a work that extolled the virtues of the simple life of love, labour, and the dignity of human beings.
Gandhi was not as personally involved in the daily running of the Phoenix settlement as he was to become in his stay of interrupted duration at the Tolstoy Farm which lasted for about four years. In part this was because the political struggle had shifted to the Transvaal afterand he controlled it from its Johannesburg headquarters.
To a large extent Gandhi's more intimate involvement at the Tolstoy Farm coincided with the heightened tempo of the passive resistance campaign, and the development of the Gandhian philosophy of the perfect individual in a perfect new order.
This essay will briefly discuss the historical context within which the Tolstoy Farm was founded, and explore the activities at the farm which led Gandhi to call the experiment a "cooperative commonwealth". Much of this kind of implicit faith in this principled leader had been inspired by the fact that he had championed the cause of the Indians for over a decade when he could have opted for the less rigorous chores of being simply a lawyer.
Gandhi's quiet and resourceful simplicity, his boundless energy, and his incredible staying power further enhanced his leadership. But it was probably the force of his satyagraha philosophy that impelled his followers forward.
They may not have fully understood all its revolutionary dimensions, but they realised that it was a new and potent force as just in its implementation as the causes for which it fought. They captured its ethos, and were propelled by it in turn. During the final phase of the campaign when the Tolstoy Farm was established Gandhi's own growth became noticeable.
During his three months of jail infirst at Volksrust and then at Pretoria, he read about thirty books. He made further acquaintance of the works of Leo Tolstoy and Henry D.
Thoreauamong others, and of the Hindu religion. Gandhi had read of Thoreau when he was a student in London, and had summarised the American's essay on Civil Disobedience in an issue of Indian Opinion in Now in jail, he eagerly explored Thoreau further. But it was Tolstoy's writings that impressed him the most.
The Russian's ideas about renouncing force as a means of opposition were akin to Gandhi's own thoughts, although he did not share Tolstoy's intense dislike for organised government. This had stimulated his search for truth and non-violence in his own religion.
It had set him upon a kind of thinking that was to mature into satyagraha later. Now in prison, he had another opportunity to read more deeply into the Russian author's works.
Prompted by his deeper appreciation of the Tolstoyan philosophy, Gandhi wrote in October the first of his four letters to the Russian. He described in it the struggle of the Transvaal Indians, and asked him to air his views on the subject of morality.
In subsequent correspondence Gandhi sent Tolstoy a copy of Joseph Doke's biography on himself, and an English translation of a pamphlet, Hind Swaraj Indian Home Rule he had written on board the ship bringing him from London to South Africa. If Gandhi had hoped to draw the Russian into a full-fledged discourse on the ideas shared by the two, he was probably disappointed.
He may not have been aware of Tolstoy's deteriorating health and his troubled life which had caused the Russian to abandon his wife a few days before he died on November 20, Once out of jail, Gandhi proceeded to London to present the Indian case before the British government, then engaged in deliberations concerning the formation of the Union of South Africa.
He talked to various persons, including Colonial Secretary Lord Crewe, without knowing whether he had been successful. Upon his return to South Africa he discovered he had not been. But a more alarming discovery was that the passive resistance campaign had slackened most notably in the five months that he had been away.
A combination of factors had brought this about. The Transvaal government had put fear in the hearts of the Indians by deporting some of them to India; and it was not freely arresting the satyagrahis - thereby to further their cause - as it had done earlier.
The morale of the Indians had sagged dangerously low. Barely a hundred of the diehards among the satyagrahis were willing to court arrest.
The fact that so many satyagrahis had abandoned the campaign before its stated goal had been attained indicated to Gandhi that they had to be properly trained in the resolve necessary for satyagraha. This implied a need for a central place where a corporate sense of purpose might be instilled into the satyagrahis, and thereby revive the campaign.Heinrich Himmler: Heinrich Himmler, German Nazi politician, police administrator, and military commander who became the second most powerful man in the Third Reich.
He was the head of the SS (Schutzstaffel; ‘Protective Echelon’), the ‘political soldiers’ of . Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays.
We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. At age 9, Gandhi entered the local school in Rajkot, near his feelthefish.com he studied the rudiments of arithmetic, history, the Gujarati language and geography.
At age 11, he joined the High School in Rajkot. He was an average student, won some prizes, but was a shy and tongue tied student, with no interest in games; his only companions were books and school lessons. Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian revolutionary and religious leader who used his religious power for political and social reform.
Although he held no governmental office, he was the main force behind the second-largest nation in the world's struggle for independence. The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 3×3 section contain the numbers between 1 to 9.
At the beginning of the game, . These Essays are written in very simple and easy language using very easy words. These are easily understandable by any student. Such essays may help and motivate students to know about the Indian cultures, heritages, monuments, famous places, importance of teachers, mothers, animals, traditional festivals, events, occasions, famous personalities, legends, social issues and so many other topics.